An Empirical Study on Awqaf Endowers’ Perception: Imperatives for Awqaf Institutions’ Success

  • Fuadah Johari Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Nursilah Ahmad Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Mohammad Haji Alias Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Syadiyah Abdul Shukor Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Kalsom Abd Wahab Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Muhammad Ridhwan Ab. Aziz Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Zurina Kefeli @ Zulkefli Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Nor Masitah Mohd Orip Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Fauzi Abu Hussin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Patmawati Ibrahim Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Keywords: Cash waqf, Islamic social finance, External and internal factors, Critical success factors


The success of awqaf institutions are determined by many factors, among others is good feedback from the endowers either from their contribution or repeat endowing. This study investigates the perception of endowers to endow and factors motivating them to repeat endowing in ensuring waqf institution success among 366 respondents in 2014. The study employs two models of multiple linear regression analysis. The first model examines the determinant factors influencing the intention to endow whereas the second model investigates internal and external factors influencing the intention to repeated waqf endowment in future. The findings show integrity of waqf institution, religious obligation and access to cash waqf have significant contribution to the endower’s perception to endow cash waqf. Meanwhile, repeated cash waqf behavior will take place if endowers are familiar with waqf institutions and have easy access to cash waqf as these two variables are significantly related to dependent variable. Thus, in order to motivate endowers to repeat cash waqf behavior, continuous promotion to create familiarity together with easy access to cash waqf are vital to encourage repeated charitable behavior.


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Amirul Faiz Osman, Sheila Nu Nu Htay & Mustafa Omar Muhammad. (2012). Determinants of cash waqf giving in Malaysia: Survey of selected works. Paper presented at the Workshop Antarbangsa Pembangunan Berteraskan Islam V (WAPI-5), 10 April 2012, Medan, Indonesia.

Antonio, M.S. (2002). Cash waqf dan anggaran pendidikan umat. Republika, Indonesia.

Conner, M. & Armitage, C. J. (1998). Extending the theory of planned behavior: A review and avenues for further research. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(15), 1429-1464.

Chowdhury, M. S. R., Ghazali, M. F. B. & Ibrahim, M. F. (2011). Economics of cash waqf management in Malaysia: A proposed cash waqf model for practitioners 15 and future researchers. African Journal of Business Management, 5(30), 12155–12163.

Fuadah Johari & Mohammad Haji Alias (2013). Potential of waqf funds and instruments in contemporary economic system. Paper presented at the 5th Islamic Economic Sytem Conference 2013 organised by Faculty of Economics and Muamalat USIM, Kuala Lumpur 4-5 September 2013.

Fuadah Johari; Mohammad Haji Alias; Syadiyah Abdul Shukor; Kalsom Abd Wahab; Muhammad Ridhwan Ab. Aziz; Nursilah Ahmad; Zurina Kefeli@ Zulkefli; Fauzi Abu Hussin & Patmawati Ibrahim (2015a). Malaysian Accounting Review,14(2), 55-78.

Fuadah Johari, Mohammad Haji Alias & Muhammad Ridhwan Ab Aziz (2015b). Persepsi niat penyumbang wakaf tunai yang tidak pasti untuk menyumbang lagi dan hubungannya terhadap integriti institusi wakaf di Malaysia. Jurnal Pengurusan JAWHAR, 9(1), 1-18.

George, G., Gow, J. & Bachoo, S. (2013). Understanding the factors influencing health-worker employment decisions in South Africa. Human Resources for Health, 11(15).

Gurcinaite, V. (2014). Labour force migration between EU: Analysis of push and pull factors (Masters thesis). Hungary: CEU.

Hair, J. F. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Education.

Ibrahim, H., Amir, A. & Masron, T. A. (2013). Cash waqf: An innovative instrument for economic development. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 6(1), 1-7.

Johari, F, Alias, M.H, Ab Aziz, Kefeli, Z, Ahmad, N, Wahab, K.A., Hussin, F.A. & Ibrahim, P.H. (2015). Identifying the potential of continuity in cash waqf contribution: A descriptive analysis. The Journal of Muamalat and Islamic Finance Research, 12(2), 55-67.

Kainth, G. S. (2009). Push and pull factors of migration: A case of brick kiln industry of Punjab state. Asia Pacific Journal of Social Sciences, 1(1), 82-116.

Krejcie, V. R. & Morgan, W. D. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.

Lammam, C. & Gabler, N. (2012). Determinants of charitable giving: A review of the literature. Fraser Forum March/April, 12- 15.

Magna Ismail A Mohsin. (2014). Corporate waqf from principle to practice. Kuala Lumpur: Pearson.

Min, P. G. (2011). The immigration of Koreans to the United States: A review of 45 year (1965–2009) trends. Development and Society, 40, 195-224.

Mohd Umar Mohd Marzuki, et al. (2012). Tackling Poverty: A Look at Cash Waqf. Prosiding Perkem VII, 2, 1611 – 1623.

Muhammad Akram Laldin. (2008). Kuala Lumpur. Fundamentals and Practices in Islamic Finance.International Shariah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA)

Muhammad Ridhwan Ab Aziz, Fuadah Johari & Mohd Asyraf Yusof. (2013). Cash waqf models for financing in education. Paper presented at the 5th Islamic Economic System Conference (iECONS2013), Faculty of Economics and Muamalat, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, 4th – 5th September 2013.

Muhammad Ridhwan Ab Aziz, Fuadah Johari & Hisham Sabri (2015). Investigating the relationship between level of income, method of contribution and appointment of Islamic waqf bank as an agent in collecting waqf fund. ʻUlūm Islāmiyyah Journal, 15, 125-138.

Norazilawati Mohamed & Noriah Othman. (2009). Push and pull factors: Determining the visitors satisfactions at urban recreational area. Procedia, 49(2012), 175-182.

Nunnally, J.C. & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd Ed.). New York: Mc Graw Hill.

Rasool, F., Botha, C. J. & Bisschoff, C. A. (2012). Push and pull factors in relation to skills shortages in South Africa. Journal of Social Sciences, 30(1), 11-20.

Rockart, Jack F. "A Primer on Critical Success Factors" published in The Rise of Managerial Computing: The Best of the Center for Information Systems Research, edited with Christine V. Bullen. (Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin), 1981, OR, McGraw-Hill School Education Group (1986).

Sargeant, A. & Woodliffe, L. (2007). Building donor loyalty: The antecedents and role of commitment in the context of charity giving. Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 18(2), 47-68.

Shah, T. H., Javed, S. & Syed, S. (2014). Internationalization of SMES in Pakistan: A brief theoretical overview of controlling factors. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 7(2), 214-230.

Shultz. K.S, Morton K.R & Weckerle J.R. (1998). The Influence of push and pull factors on voluntary and involuntary early retirees’ retirement decision and adjustment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 53(1), 45-57.

Siswantoro, Dodik. & Kartika Dewi Miranti. (2011). The effectiveness of waqf fund raising through mutual fund in Indonesia. Essential readings in contemporary waqf issues. Kuala Lumpur: CERT publication

Smith, J. R. & McSweeney, A. (2007). Charitable giving: The effectiveness of a revised theory of planned behaviour model in predicting donating intentions and behaviour. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 17(5), 363-386.

Snip, B. (2011). Factors influencing the intention to endow to charity organizations: Importance of trust (Master’s thesis). Faculty of Behavioral Sciences, University of Twente.

Syadiyah Abdul Shukor, Intan Fatimah Anwar, Sumaiyah Abdul Aziz & Hisham Sabri (2017). Muslim attitude towards participation in cash waqf: Antecedents and consequences. International Journal of Business and Society, 18(S1), 193-204.

Syadiyah Abdul Shukor, Fuadah Johari, Kalsom Abd Wahab, Zurina Kefeli @ Zulkefli, Nursilah Ahmad, Mohammad Haji Alias, Asma Abdul Rahman, Nor Masitah Mohd Orip, Patmawati Ibrahim, Mohd Fauzi Abu-Hussin. (2018). Trust on awqaf institutions: Evidence from Malaysia Journal of Islamic Marketing,

How to Cite
Johari, F., Ahmad, N., Alias, M. H., Shukor, S. A., Wahab, K. A., Ab. Aziz, M. R., Kefeli @ Zulkefli, Z., Mohd Orip, N. M., Abu Hussin, F., & Ibrahim, P. (2018). An Empirical Study on Awqaf Endowers’ Perception: Imperatives for Awqaf Institutions’ Success. The Journal of Muamalat and Islamic Finance Research, 15(2), 66-79.
Regular Issues